2018 - 07 - 25
1, matching springs and springs based on automobiles, motorcycles, diesel engines and gasoline engines. This type of spring has valve spring, suspension spring, damping spring and clutch spring, etc., with a large amount, which accounts for about 50% of the spring production. At the same time, the technical level is also high, it can be said that the technical level of these springs is representative, they are mainly to the high fatigue life and high anti relaxation direction, thus reducing the quality. 2. Large springs and plate springs, which mainly include railway rolling stock, heavy ...
2018 - 08 - 06
We can look at the relationship between the force applied to a spring and its resulting displacement. Again, there are three classes of springs: linear (or constant rate) springs, variable rate springs, and constant force springs. Linear springs Linear springs obey Hooke’s Law (F=k*x), which means that the force needed to extend or compress such a spring by distance x is proportional to the distance, as long as the force doesn’t exceed the elastic limit of the spring. Torsion springs obey an analogous version of Hooke’s Law (F=k*θ, where θ is an angle). In both cases, k is the spring rate, and...
2018 - 08 - 17
8, detection of fatigue property and relaxation rate of spring8.1 spring fatigue performance testing requirements: the spring that bears the variable load is in the internal quality of the enterprise.Quantity control, user inspection, new product certification, certification, industry sampling and process adjustment.In the ring section, the fatigue performance must be tested. The testing method can be tested by fatigue life testThere are two kinds of certificate test or reliability evaluation test, but they are classified and certified for products.Reliability evaluation test must be adopted t...
2018 - 09 - 03
The spring pressure test of metal springs usually uses electronic digital spring tension and compression testing machine. Electronic digital spring tension and compression testing machine is a special instrument for testing the deformation and load relationship characteristics of tension and compression springs. It is suitable for testing the working load of the tension and compression spring under a certain working length, and also for testing the elastic load of elastic devices such as rubber and spring.The pressure test of metal springs is generally divided into the following steps:1. Compr...
2018 - 09 - 14
55SiCr is the high-grade steel used for automobile suspension springs. The suspension springs bear the reciprocating compression motion in the process of automobile driving, and play the role of buffer and shock absorption, which has high requirements on the performance of steel.Decarburization is one of the main problems in the hot processing of spring steel. Decarburization of spring steel surface will seriously damage the fatigue performance of spring, especially when the total decarburization of ferrite occurs on spring steel surface, the fatigue limit of spring can be reduced by 50%.At pr...
2018 - 09 - 26
The selection of spring material shall be determined according to the properties of the spring bearing load, stress state, stress size, working temperature, environmental medium, service life, requirements for conducting and magnetic conductivity, technical performance, material source and price, etc.When determining the shape and size of the material section, the series sizes specified in the national standards and ministerial standards should be selected first, and non-standard series of materials should be avoided as far as possible.Medium and small-sized springs, especially spiral-tension ...
2018 - 10 - 11
Type of paint used on spring surfacesThe oxidation treatment of the spring (also known as bluish, blackened, cooked black, etc.) is mainly used to prevent the corrosion of the spring, and also to make the spring appearance bright.Oxidation treatment methods include: alkaline oxidation, alkali free oxidation and electrolytic oxidation.Spring oxidation treatment is often alkaline oxidation treatment, in the presence of oxidants (such as sodium nitrite) in caustic sodium solution.As the solution approaches the boiling point, the iron on the surface of the spring dissolves and forms sodium ferrite...
2018 - 10 - 22
The corrosion of spring can be divided into chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion according to the type of reaction.They are the result of changes in the metal atoms on the surface of the spring or the loss of electrons to an ionic state.If the metal on the surface of the spring simply reacts with the surrounding medium, and the spring causes corrosion, it is called chemical corrosion.For example, the spring is oxidized in the particularly dry atmosphere to form an oxidation film, and the spring is chemically changed with the liquid or impurity in the non-electrolyte liquid, which i...
2019 - 12 - 11
A compression spring comes in many configurations, shapes and sizes. They are conical, hourglass and barrel of varying lengths—and can be used as a shock absorber, vibration damper, a pure energy accumulator, or force generator. Because of their versatility, how efficiently they store energy and the multiple shapes in which they can be manufactured, these types of mechanical springs have a wide selection of applications.In the automotive industry, compression springs are used throughout the vehicle. In the medical applications , compression springs are used as parts in assemblin...
2018 - 08 - 01
Core tips: elastic formula: F=kx, F for elastic, K for the stiffness coefficient, X for the length of the spring length, such as the length of the spring for example, to test a spring of 5N: 5N pull the stiffness coefficient of 100N/m spring, the spring is elongated 5cmF= KX, K is the stiffness coefficient (unit is Newton per meter), X is the spring elongation (unit is rice), this law is called Hooke's law.Elastic formula:F=kx, F is elastic, K is stiffness coefficient, X is spring stretch length.For example, to test a 5N spring:When a spring with a stiffness coefficient of 100N/m is pulled...
2018 - 08 - 14
(5) the development of spring steel wireAfter more than 100 years of development, the technology of spring steel has experienced lead hardened to oil quenching, and now it develops to induction hardening. Coupled with the continuous innovation and improvement of technology and equipment, the quality of varieties is constantly updated. The newly developed valves have been developed by induction heating and tempering with spring steel wire. It has been proved that the plastic, toughness, relaxation, fracture toughness, delayed fracture resistance, fatigue life and so on are all compared with oil...
2018 - 08 - 28
The technological process of helical springs refers to the process of converting spring materials into finished springs, which flow through every process in sequence. Because of the spring material, the spring type and the processing method are different, the technological procedures of the spiral spring are also different. However, their basic technological processes are coil spring heat treatment end processing surface treatment.Next, introduce several typical processes.1. manufacturing compressed spiral spring with cold drawn spring steel wireFor the lathe coil spring, after the winding spr...
2018 - 09 - 11
Vibration damping spring is a common elastic component, which is widely used in various vibration equipment and automobile manufacturing industries. It has the advantages of good stability, low noise, good isolation effect and long service life.Compression springs, rubber springs, composite springs, air bag springs are vibration - reducing springs.Vibration damping spring can be divided into: wire compression spring, rubber spring, compound spring, rubber air spring, etc.Steel wire compression spring is a spiral spring under pressure, it USES the material section is mostly circular, also USES ...
2018 - 09 - 22
Spring is a kind of elastic element widely used in the mechanical and electronic industries. Spring can produce greater elastic deformation when loaded, and convert mechanical work or kinetic energy into deformation energy. After unloading, the deformation of spring disappears and returns to its original state, and the deformation energy is transformed into mechanical work or kinetic energy.The ratio of load and deformation of the spring is called spring stiffness.  There are many kinds of springs. They are used in various fields. According to the deformation condition, they can be divide...
2018 - 10 - 09
1. The standing treatment of the compression spring is to compress the spring to the working limit height or to tighten the height several times, usually 3 to 5 times;For the stretching spring, the length of the spring is drawn to the working limit several times;Torsion spring, is the spring in the working direction of the 5522 for the ultimate torsion Angle several times.2. Strong pressure (strong tension and strong torsion) treatment for compression spring is to press the spring into the material layer and the stress exceeds the yield point, resulting in negative residual stress on the surfa...
2018 - 10 - 19
1、 preparation before peening1) the size and surface roughness before spring-shot blasting should meet the requirements of the pattern, except for special instructions (if it is necessary to reprocess the shot blasting surface).2) the spring shall complete the prescribed heat treatment before shot peening.3) the non-destructive test of the spring shall be completed before the shot peening treatment, or after the shot peening if there is special requirement.4) the surface of the spring to be sprayed should be clean, dry and free of oil.2、 treatment after shot peening1) the heating temperature o...
2018 - 11 - 01
Springs are ubiquitous in all kinds of machines—from consumer products to heavy industrial equipment, take apart anything that involves a mechanism, and chances are, you’ll find a spring inside. Springs are storage devices for mechanical energy—think of them as analogous to batteries! The earliest spring-driven clocks appeared in the 1400s. Fast-forward some 600 years, you still have to charge the Apple Watch everyday, and it’s not nearly as fast as winding a clock…but I digress.My personal fascination with springs began with Slinkies and wind-up toys, and countless mechanical pencils were sac...
2020 - 01 - 13
Constant force spring, or “clock” spring, is a roll of prestressed strip which exerts a nearly constant restraining force to resist uncoiling. The force is constant because the change in the radius of curvature is constant.   Such applications as brush springs for motors, counterbalance springs for window sashes and carriage return springs for typewriters. Constant force motor springs are used to drive mechanisms for timers, movie cameras and cable retractors.Constant force spring also known as coil spring helix in a plane of the spring, Spring is the material wound in...
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Properties of spring material

日期: 2018-09-22
浏览次数: 61

1) high strength: in order to improve the spring's ability to resist fatigue failure and relaxation, the spring material should have a high yield strength and elastic limit, and in particular, a high ratio of strength to strength.In general, the elastic limit of the material is directly proportional to the yield strength, so the spring design and the manufacturer always want the material to have a high yield strength.The tensile strength and yield strength of the spring material are close, for example, about 90% of the carbon steel wire of cold drawn is about: since the tensile strength is easier to be measured than the yield strength, the tensile strength is provided in the delivery of the material, so the tensile strength is generally used as the basis in design and manufacture.However, the material's tensile strength is not the higher the better, the higher the strength will reduce the material's plasticity and toughness, and increase brittle tendency.The tensile strength of the material is related to its chemical composition, metallographic structure, heat treatment, degree of cold processing (drawing or rolling) and other factors such as strengthening process.There is also a certain relationship between tensile strength and fatigue strength. When the material is below 1600MPa, its fatigue strength increases with the increase of tensile strength.

2) good plasticity and toughness: during the spring manufacturing process, the material has to undergo processing deformation of different degrees, so a certain plasticity is required.For example, the hook ring and torsion arm of the spring with complex shape, when the radius of curvature is very small, the spring material shall not have defects such as cracks and broken in the process of winding or stamping forming.At the same time, when the spring bears the impact load or variable load, the material should have good toughness, which will be of great benefit to the life of the spring.

Properties of spring material

3) excellent surface state and the fatigue performance: the biggest spring under the surface of the work stress, and fatigue failure often starts from the surface of steel wire, for use in the important occasion of the spring, such as valve spring, valve spring and the suspension spring are required to have millions of times, even tens of millions of times more long cycle life, it's on the material fatigue performance of the high demands are put forward.There are many factors that affect the fatigue properties of materials, such as the chemical composition of materials, hardness, purity of steel, surface quality and metallographic structure, especially the surface quality of materials.The surface defects of materials, such as cracks, folds, scales, rust, pits, scratches and indentations, can easily cause stress concentration in the working process of the spring.The stress concentration is often the source of fatigue failure.The fatigue source is also easy to occur at the site of surface decarburization, so strict control of decarburization depth is also a very important quality indicator.In order to improve the surface quality of the spring material, the material surface can be polished or polished. Before steel wire drawing, a layer of material epidermis can be removed by peeling technology. In this way, most surface defects can be removed.Spring heat treatment can be used to control the atmosphere or vacuum heat treatment to prevent surface decarburization and oxidation.

4) strict dimensional accuracy: many springs have higher requirements on load accuracy. For example, the load deviation of valve springs should not be greater than 5%-6% of the specified load. Take pull and pressure springs with round steel wire as an example.It can be seen that strict dimensional accuracy is also very important to ensure the quality of the spring.

5) good uniformity: the uniformity requirements for materials refer to the uniformity and stability requirements for the chemical composition, mechanical properties, dimensional deviation and other indicators of materials.If all aspects of the material performance is inconsistent, it will bring great difficulties to the spring production, resulting in the product geometric size, hardness, load and other parameters of dispersion, serious non-uniformity and even waste.

In order to meet the above performance requirements, spring steel must have excellent metallurgical quality, including strictly controlled chemical composition, high purity, low impurity content, low non-metallic inclusion content, and control its shape, particle size and distribution.In addition, homogeneity and stability of steel are required.Spring steel shall also have good surface quality (including surface decarburization) and high precision shape and size.

At present, spring steel is mainly produced by electric furnace or converter, which is characterized by high power and capacity, and is used as spring material for general machinery.For materials with high performance springs, ladle refining, vacuum degassing and other outside refining technologies are widely used, such as ladle blowing argon, ladle refining furnace (LF), vacuum treatment (RH), etc., to strictly control chemical composition and reduce the content of gas and various non-metallic inclusions.In addition, non-metallic inclusion control technology is adopted to control the shape, particle size and distribution of non-metallic inclusions, such as feeding human calcium wire and spraying calcium powder to make non-metallic inclusions contain CaO and control their particle size.In the process of steelmaking, the composition of non-metallic inclusions is changed by adjusting the deoxidizer and furnace slag to make it easy to plastic deformation during hot rolling.By using RH degassing technology, the oxygen content can be greatly reduced and the fatigue life can be significantly improved.

Continuous casting has been widely used in spring steel production.Compared with mold casting, continuous casting can reduce the segregation of steel and improve the uniformity of steel by electromagnetic stirring and low temperature casting.Reduce secondary oxidation and improve surface decarburization of steel;Make the structure and properties of steel stable and uniform;Increase yield and productivity;In combination with outside refining technology to reduce oxygen content and effectively control the chemical composition of steel.

The longitudinal continuous rolling mill is widely used in foreign countries for high speed, no twist, no tension rolling under the condition of increasing the dimensional deviation of spring steel, section shape, surface quality (including the depth of decarburization) and the microstructure uniformity along the length of steel.Short stress line or prestress mill is used to ensure steel size accuracy.

Relevant recommendations
2020 . 01 . 13
Constant force spring, or “clock” spring, is a roll of prestressed strip which exerts a nearly constant restraining force to resist uncoiling. The force is constant because the change in the radius of curvature is constant.   Such applications as brush springs for motors, counterbalance springs for window sashes and carriage return springs for typewriters. Constant force motor springs are used to drive mechanisms for timers, movie cameras and cable retractors.Constant force spring also known as coil spring helix in a plane of the spring, Spring is the material wound into a plane of the spiral of a spring, the spring is fixed at one end, the other end of the material after acting torque bending torque, bending elastic deformation, so the spring in its own plane to p...
2020 . 01 . 13
A compression spring is an open-coil helical spring that offers resistance to a compressive force applied axially. They are usually coiled at a constant diameter, though they can be coiled in other needed forms such as conical, concave (barrel), convex (hourglass), or various combinations of these. Compression springs are used to resist force and/or store energy,1、CharacteristicsBy far the most widely used type of spring, compression springs are designed to oppose compression and return to its uncompressed length when the applied force is removed. 2、Service LifeIt should be noted that if critical force-versus-deflection linearity is required, only the center 60-80% of the available deflection range should be employed.Thus, reserve at least the first and last 15-20% of t...
2020 . 01 . 06
When choosing the right spring, selecting the best spring wire is a critical before manufacturing. Below are some of the most common spring wire materials and their unique characteristics .Stainless Steel SpringsStainless steel springs have low-stress relaxation and resist corrosion. They have good strength at moderate temperatures and are resistant to heat. Extension springs are most commonly made from stainless steel.Extension springs absorb energy and provide resistance to pulling. As the name suggests, an extension spring stretches as a load is applied to it. Applications for extension springs include carburetors, trampolines and farm machinery.Oil Tempered Spring WireOil tempered wire is cold drawn and heat treated before plating. Ideal as a general purpose spring wire, it is often us...
2020 . 01 . 06
springs are a mechanical part that use elasticity to work. Generally made of spring steel. It is widely used in machines and instruments to control the movement of machine parts, mitigate impact or vibration, store and store energy, measure force, etc.The spring is just an accumulator, it has the function of storing energy, but can not release the energy slowly, to achieve the release of this function should rely on the 'spring + large transmission ratio mechanism' to achieve, common in the mechanical table.The spring is widely used in the mechanical and electronic industry. The spring can produce a large elastic deformation under load and convert mechanical work or kinetic energy into deformation energy. After unloading, the spring's deformation disappears and returns to its o...
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