2018 - 07 - 23
(4) the development of stainless steelChina is a big country in the production of stainless steel. With the production and development of stainless steel, many varieties have been developed naturally. At present, more than 50 kinds of stainless steel have been developed, which basically meet the needs of domestic production and development, and a brief description of some new varieties developed at present.1) the initial formation of austenitic stainless steel system. Low carbon austenitic stainless steel 0Cr18Ni9 and 00Cr17Ni2Mo2 have been developed to eliminate fatigue corrosion caused by ca...
2018 - 08 - 02
M- mass of the object acting on the spring (kg)Ms- spring mass (kg)  N- variable load cycle number  N- spring working circle  Nz- spring support ring number  N1- total number of turns of the spring  P'- Spring single ring stiffness (N/mm)  R- The middle radius of the coil (mm)  R1- inner radius of the coil (mm)  R2- outer radius of the coil (mm)  R- damping coefficient  S- safety factor  T-torque; torque (Nmm)  T'- torsional stiffness (N-mm /(0))T- spring momentTc- cable p...
2018 - 08 - 16
6.1.10 detection of parallelism between ends of springs: the spring is placed vertically on the plate.The difference between the maximum and minimum values of the surface of the end ring is measured by the dial indicator. The difference between the maximum and minimum values is the parallelism deviation between the ends of the spring.6.1.11 spring straightness detection: put the spring level on the plate and roll one.Zhou, determine its maximum bending position and measure the gap between the maximum bending point and the flat plate with a feeler gauge.The measured gap is the deviation of the ...
2018 - 08 - 30
The spring pressure test of metal springs usually uses electronic digital spring tension and compression testing machine. Electronic digital spring tension and compression testing machine is a special instrument for testing the deformation and load relationship characteristics of tension and compression springs. It is suitable for testing the working load of the tension and compression spring under a certain working length, and also for testing the elastic load of elastic devices such as rubber and spring.The pressure test of metal springs is generally divided into the following steps:1. Compr...
2018 - 09 - 12
There are many methods of construction of paint, most of which are used for springs in the following ways:(1) dip coating method dip coating method is to dip the spring into the paint groove, and then take out, and let the excess paint on the surface drip naturally. After drying, it is covered with paint film on the surface of the spring.The dip-coating method has high production efficiency and can be applied to mechanization and automation production.But the paint volatilizes quickly, the paint that contains heavy quality pigment and two component paint material (amine solidify epoxy paint, p...
2018 - 09 - 25
Nowadays, with the development of science and technology, spring has become a very important hardware accessory in our life. Different products use different springs, and the longest used springs can be roughly divided into: pull spring, twist spring, press spring, disc spring and plate spring.The following features of a very practical tension spring:Many different products or hooks are used to guarantee the source of the tension of the tension spring. The tension spring works in the opposite way to the compression spring. The tension spring works in the opposite way when stretching or pulling...
2018 - 10 - 10
Spring steel wire will generate residual stress during the process of cold drawing and oil quenching and heat treatment. Moreover, spring wire is formed during the process of manufacturing and shot peening is conducted.High frequency quenching, carburizing, nitrification, etc. are used as surface hardening treatment. As a result of these treatments, residual stress will be generated in the material.The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the residual stress of the material will be an important factor to improve the fatigue properties of the spring.Residual stress of the spring is usually ...
2018 - 10 - 20
After the end face grinding, if the free height, perpendicularity, pitch and outside diameter of the spring do not meet the deviation specified in the pattern, the screw compression spring often needs to be corrected.Calibration operations are generally manual or semi-manual.The commonly used tools are: the spring with the metal wire above 4mm, multi-purpose manual pressure machine, splitting machine, press and so on;For springs with wire under 4mm, special tools, pliers and hammers with wedge edge are often used.Calibration is to use these tools to make the spring locally plastic deformation ...
2018 - 11 - 03
In the transmission mechanism of the press, when the clutch and the brake adopt mechanical rigid interlock, as long as the air is set on the clutch.The cylinder, the air pressure ACTS on the piston of the cylinder to make the clutch friction pair fit, and to make the air pressure of the spring brake brake friction pair separate and not brake, so when the air cylinder enters, the brake friction pair should be separated first, and then the clutch friction pair fits to complete the combination.The friction pair separation of the clutch and the friction pair fitting of the brake are respectively a...
2018 - 07 - 30
Detection of the characteristics of 7.2 torsion springsWhen measuring torque, the size of the torsional spring axis must be suitable. The inner diameter of the spring should be kept to a certain gap, and the friction force and friction torque caused by the contraction of the inner diameter of the spring should be avoided, and the measurement accuracy should be affected. But the spindle can not be too small, otherwise it will cause the offset between the external torque and the measuring torque center, resulting in the error of the torque measurement. The specific testing program for torsion sp...
2018 - 08 - 13
Like most other basic mechanisms, metal springs have existed for a long time in the bronze age. Even for metals, wood is used as a structural member of flexible bow and arrow and military catapult. In the Renaissance, precise clocks made precision springs the first necessity. In Fourteenth Century, we saw the precise clock of revolutionary astronomical navigation developed. The world's exploration and conquest of European colonial powers continue to provide impetus for watchmakers "science and art." The other area of the firearm promotes the development of the spring. At the dawn...
2018 - 08 - 25
Wire forming spring is a mechanical part that uses elasticity to work. It is usually made of spring steel. It is used to control the movement of machine parts, to mitigate impact or vibration, to store energy and to measure the magnitude of force. It is widely used in machines and instruments.The spring is just an accumulator. It has the function of storing energy, but it can not release the energy slowly. To realize the function of releasing slowly, it should be realized by "Spring + large transmission ratio mechanism", which is common in the mechanical meter.Spring is a kind of ela...
2018 - 09 - 10
Spring grinding is easy to produce cracks at the end of the tightness, and directly affect the verticality of the spring, load and free length size, so the general grinding process of spring should be carried out after stress relief tempering. Eliminate the residual stress of steel wire cold drawing to prevent the generation of end gap cracks.The main factors that affect the quality of springs in grinding are as follows:(1) The grinding wheel should be selected reasonably; (2) the control of the bevel angle of the end ring; (3) a certain number of special measuring tools should be equipped to ...
2018 - 09 - 20
The corrosion of spring can be divided into chemical corrosion and electrochemical corrosion according to the type of reaction.They are the result of changes in the metal atoms on the surface of the spring or the loss of electrons to an ionic state.If the metal on the surface of the spring simply reacts with the surrounding medium, and the spring causes corrosion, it is called chemical corrosion.For example, the spring is oxidized in the particularly dry atmosphere to form an oxidation film, and the spring is chemically changed with the liquid or impurity in the non-electrolyte liquid, which i...
2018 - 09 - 30
Washing method according to the surface state:General notice when washing, please pay attention not to scratch the surface to avoid the use of bleaching ingredients and abrasive solution, steel wire ball (brush roller ball), grinding tools, etc. In order to remove the washing liquid, wash the surface with clean water at the end of washing.Surface condition and washing methodDirt and scale removal - wash with soap, mild detergent or warm water.Label and film -- scrubbing with warm water and weak detergent;Binder ingredients - use alcohol or organic solutions;Contamination of fats, oils, lubrica...
2018 - 10 - 17
A compact protective film is formed on the surface of the spring by chemical reaction to prevent the corrosion of the spring.Generally, oxidation treatment and phosphating treatment are used.Oxidation treatment and phosphating treatment have low cost and high production efficiency. Generally, spring manufacturers adopt oxidation treatment as corrosion prevention treatment.1.Oxidation treatment of steel is also known as bluing, blackening and boiling black.After oxidation treatment, the surface of the spring produces protective magnetic iron oxide, which is generally blue or black or sometimes ...
2018 - 10 - 29
The torsion spring is divided into single torsion spring and double torsion spring. The spring is usually inserted into the pin or shaft. When external force is applied, a torsion force is generated according to the shaft center of the spring to make the spring coiled tightly or loose.Double - twist spring is divided into external double - twist and internal double - torque spring.The loops are either closely encircled or separately encircled to allow for a load of torque (at right angles to the spring axis).The end of the spring can be wound into a hook or straight twist arm.The following is ...
2020 - 01 - 06
springs are a mechanical part that use elasticity to work. Generally made of spring steel. It is widely used in machines and instruments to control the movement of machine parts, mitigate impact or vibration, store and store energy, measure force, etc.The spring is just an accumulator, it has the function of storing energy, but can not release the energy slowly, to achieve the release of this function should rely on the 'spring + large transmission ratio mechanism' to achieve, common in the mechanical table.The spring is widely used in the mechanical and electronic industry. The spring...
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Coil extension, torsion spring manufacturing

日期: 2018-11-02
浏览次数: 608

Cylindrical spiral spring structure

There are three types of cylindrical spiral spring:

1. Cylindrical spiral compression spring

1) spacing between springs

Let the spring's pitch be p;The diameter of the spring wire is d;In the free state, there should be proper spacing between the circles.In order to make the spring still maintain a certain elasticity after compression, it is also necessary to ensure that there is a certain gap of 1 between each circle under the maximum load.The size of lens 1 is generally recommended to be: in addition 1=0.1d or greater than 0.2mm

2) dead circle

The two ends of the spring are closed with the adjacent ring (no gap), which only supports the spring without deformation.When the number of working rings of the spring is less than or equal to 7, the dead ring at each end of the spring is about 0.75.When n BBB 0 7, the dead ring at each end is about 1 ~ 1.75 turns.

3) end structure

YI type: both end face rings are tightly connected with the adjacent ring and are ground flat on the special grinding machine;

YII type: when the spring wire is heated and wound, both ends of the spring wire are forged flat and tightly connected with the adjacent ring (the end ring can be ground or not ground);

YIII type: both ends of the ring with the adjacent ring and do not wear smooth

In important cases, YI type should be used to ensure that the two supporting ends are perpendicular to the spring axis, so that the spring is not askew when under pressure.When the diameter of the spring wire is less than or equal to 0.5mm, the two supporting end faces of the spring need not be polished.For the spring of d BBB 0 0.5mm, the two supporting end faces shall be ground.The grinding part shall not be less than 3/4 of the circumference.The thickness of the end should not be less than d/8, and the roughness of the end surface should be less than

2.Cylinder coil drawing spring

1) end hook type

For easy connection, fixation and loading, the stretch spring is provided with a hook at both ends.

LI and LII hooks are easy to make and widely used.However, due to the large bending stress generated at the transition point of the hook, it is only suitable for the spring whose diameter of the spring wire is d or less than l0mm.

LVII and LVIII hooks are not combined with spring wires, so there are no disadvantages of the aforementioned transition. Moreover, the hooks can be turned to any direction for easy installation.It is better to use the LVII hook for heavy duty applications, but it is more expensive.

Coil extension, torsion spring manufacturing

2) stretch spring with prestress

When the cylinder coils are unloaded, the rings should be closed to each other.In addition, in order to save the axial working space, and ensure that the springs in the no-load time each ring compresses each other, usually in the winding process, and at the same time make the spring wire around its own axis to generate torsion.The spring made in this way, each ring has a certain pressure on each other, and a certain prestress is produced in the spring wire, so it is called.This kind of spring must be larger than the initial tension of F0, after each ring began to separate, so that no prestressed stretch spring can save the axial working space.

3. Spiral torsion spring

The torsion spring is provided with a lever arm at both ends for easy connection, fixation and loading:

The cylindrical spiral spring is manufactured

The manufacturing process of spiral spring includes: a) rolling;B) the making of the hook or finishing of the face ring;C) heat treatment;D) process test and strong pressure treatment.

Coiling is the winding of spring wire to the mandrel according to the technical requirements.In mass production, it is rolled on universal automatic spring coiler;Single piece and small batch production, in the ordinary lathe or manual winding machine winding.

There are two kinds of rolling: cold roll and hot roll.The cold coil is used for spring wire with diameter d<(8 ~ 10)mm drawn after pre-heat treatment.Stronger springs made of larger diameter spring filaments use hot coils.Hot coil when temperature varies with the thickness of the wire spring in the range of 800 ~ 1000 ℃.The pitch of the spring should be adjusted according to the specific situation, no matter using cold roll or hot roll.

After the above procedure, the spring should be heat treated.The surface of the spring after heat treatment should not have a significant decarburization layer.The spring after the cold coil is tempering only to eliminate the internal stress of the coil.

In addition, the spring must also carry out the process test and the test of precision, impact and fatigue according to the technical conditions of the spring to check whether the spring meets the technical requirements.It should be noted that the durable strength and impact strength of the spring depend to a large extent on the surface condition of spring wire, so the spring wire surface must be smooth and clean without defects such as cracks and scars.Surface decarburization will seriously affect the material's lasting strength and impact resistance.Therefore, the depth of decarburization layer and other surface defects shall be specified in the technical conditions for the acceptance of spring.Important springs shall also be treated with surface protection (e.g. galvanized);A common spring is usually painted with oil or paint.

For important springs, there is also a strong pressure treatment.In order to generate plastic deformation and residual stress in the critical area of the spring wire section, the spring is loaded continuously for 6 ~ 48 hours under the action of ultimate load.Because the residual stress is opposite to the working stress symbol, the maximum working stress of the spring treated with strong pressure is small.If treated by shot peening, increase by 20%.However, springs used in long term vibration, high temperature and corrosive media, as well as springs in general use should not adopt this strengthening process.

Spiral drawing and torsion spring manufacturing, except a few manufacturers in the introduction of foreign CNC CNC spring forming machine last automatic forming process various types of stretch, torsion spring.Most manufacturers still use traditional processing methods to manufacture, now a simple introduction.

1. Coil stretching spring.The process is basically the same as that of the spiral compression spring, except the hook ring processing at the end. The forming method of the stretching spring is as follows:

1) the same method as the screw compression spring is used to conduct de-stress annealing after winding forming, and then the hook ring is processed. In addition to the special shape of the hook ring or the spiral stretching spring with high initial tension is used for lathe winding or manual rolling, most of the springs are rolled by automatic spring winding machine.Coil extension, torsion spring manufacturing

2) coil with straight end spring machine.It is a vertical vertical spindle winding machine.After rolling, de-stress annealing and then hook and ring processing.The end structure of coiled stretch spring has many forms and processing methods.Commonly used are: small spring using plier-type special tools or special process equipment for manual processing;The normal spiral stretching spring is processed by the hook or die by manual or automatic operation.The stretching spring of the long arm hook ring is usually the length of material needed for the draw hook to be left out when winding, or the number of rings needed for processing after winding, the two ends are straightened with the straightening tool, and then the hook ring is bent with the special tool.The process specification for de-stressing annealing is described above.After the spring coiling is done, stress relief annealing is carried out first, and then cut off and hook ring processing is carried out. After the hook ring processing is completed, the stress relief annealing should be carried out one or two times in general.In order to prevent two carabiners relative Angle changes, therefore, when the stress relieving to shackle is processed temperature is better than rolling after the low temperature of 20 ~ 30 ° C.Coiled extension springs are generally not shot blasting and tension treatment.

2. Spiral torsion spring.Its craft and spiral compression, tensile spring are basically the same, different embedded instant kang also raise agent ぁ?In the case of small batch production and complicated torsion arm, most of the torsion arm is formed by manual or semi-automatic winding spring method, and then the torsion arm is processed according to the pattern requirements with the jig.In the mass production, it can be rolled on the straight-tail coil spring machine and the special machine for torsion spring. If the torsion arm cannot be completed according to the pattern, it can be processed by the work installation and clamping device.According to the characteristics of the helical torsion spring, the following two points should be noted in the design and manufacture:

1) the twist arm of the end of the spiral torsion spring shall be bent once during manufacturing to avoid machining defects and correct shaping.The second stress relief annealing should be carried out after the torsion arm processing.

2) the current helical torsion springs are mostly close coils, in this way, a compressive force similar to the initial tension of the stretching spring is generated between the spring coils. Friction will be generated during loading and unloading, and hysteresis will occur.It also brings difficulties to the surface treatment process.Therefore, in the design and forming, the spring coil should be slightly left between the gap.In mass production, under conditions, the manufacturer can adopt hydraulic and pneumatic methods to process the spiral drawing, torsion spring expansion, bending and hook.

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2020 . 01 . 13
Constant force spring, or “clock” spring, is a roll of prestressed strip which exerts a nearly constant restraining force to resist uncoiling. The force is constant because the change in the radius of curvature is constant.   Such applications as brush springs for motors, counterbalance springs for window sashes and carriage return springs for typewriters. Constant force motor springs are used to drive mechanisms for timers, movie cameras and cable retractors.Constant force spring also known as coil spring helix in a plane of the spring, Spring is the material wound into a plane of the spiral of a spring, the spring is fixed at one end, the other end of the material after acting torque bending torque, bending elastic deformation, so the spring in its own plane to p...
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A compression spring is an open-coil helical spring that offers resistance to a compressive force applied axially. They are usually coiled at a constant diameter, though they can be coiled in other needed forms such as conical, concave (barrel), convex (hourglass), or various combinations of these. Compression springs are used to resist force and/or store energy,1、CharacteristicsBy far the most widely used type of spring, compression springs are designed to oppose compression and return to its uncompressed length when the applied force is removed. 2、Service LifeIt should be noted that if critical force-versus-deflection linearity is required, only the center 60-80% of the available deflection range should be employed.Thus, reserve at least the first and last 15-20% of t...
2020 . 01 . 06
When choosing the right spring, selecting the best spring wire is a critical before manufacturing. Below are some of the most common spring wire materials and their unique characteristics .Stainless Steel SpringsStainless steel springs have low-stress relaxation and resist corrosion. They have good strength at moderate temperatures and are resistant to heat. Extension springs are most commonly made from stainless steel.Extension springs absorb energy and provide resistance to pulling. As the name suggests, an extension spring stretches as a load is applied to it. Applications for extension springs include carburetors, trampolines and farm machinery.Oil Tempered Spring WireOil tempered wire is cold drawn and heat treated before plating. Ideal as a general purpose spring wire, it is often us...
2020 . 01 . 06
springs are a mechanical part that use elasticity to work. Generally made of spring steel. It is widely used in machines and instruments to control the movement of machine parts, mitigate impact or vibration, store and store energy, measure force, etc.The spring is just an accumulator, it has the function of storing energy, but can not release the energy slowly, to achieve the release of this function should rely on the 'spring + large transmission ratio mechanism' to achieve, common in the mechanical table.The spring is widely used in the mechanical and electronic industry. The spring can produce a large elastic deformation under load and convert mechanical work or kinetic energy into deformation energy. After unloading, the spring's deformation disappears and returns to its o...
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